This study proposed that evaluative situations influence individual performance by raising concerns about self-and social-evaluations. When an individual performs a task, the individual's performance may be subject to two types of evaluation: self-evaluation and evaluation by others.
Often, the basis of evaluation is the performance of others, i.e., social comparison. In such cases, an individual may increase performance to protect self-and social-esteem. Further, the individual's sensitivity to esteem threats, as measured by identity orientation, may moderate the
performance increase. This study examined performance in two evaluative situations: peer groups and goal setting. Experimental results support the proposed theory in the case of peer evaluations. Regarding goals, results suggest that self-evaluation may not contribute to performance increases
associated with goal setting.