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The motivational and behavioral underpinnings of three narcissistic styles were assessed. Participants completed measures of adaptive, maladaptive, and covert narcissism along with instruments assessing unconscious and conscious motives and patterns of daily behavior. Adaptive narcissism
was associated with dominance and affiliation motives, maladaptive narcissism was related to high dominance and low affiliation motivation, and covert narcissism was inversely associated with both dominance and affiliation. The notion that maladaptive and covert narcissism are two distinct
styles representing different forms of dis-affiliation is discussed.