The purpose of the study was to examine the self-perception of ability by Chinese children with respect to gender and grade differences. A total of 1,679 boys and girls in three primary grade levels from Mainland China and Hong Kong were included, and an indigenously developed multidimensional
self-concept scale (MMSI) was used. Results showed that in both the China and Hong Kong samples, boys were found to score a little lower than girls in three self-concept domains: academic, social, and general. Primary One students were found to score higher than Primary Three and Five students
in all four domains: academic, appearance, social, and general. Results also indicated that children from China were higher than children from Hong Kong in appearance, social, and general self-concept. Significant interaction effects of society by grade and gender by grade were found. The
findings were discussed with respect to the developmental process of Chinese children.