Chinese secondary school students with low academic achievement (N=365) responded to instruments measuring their perceived paternal and maternal parenting styles and behavior, and conflict with the father and the mother. Compared with the norm based on students with relatively higher
academic attainment, parents in the present sample were perceived to be less responsive and less demanding and they had more conflict with their children. The data also showed gender differences in parenting characteristics, with fathers perceived to be relatively less responsive, less demanding,
less concerned, but more harsh in their parenting styles and having more conflict with their children.