Two studies examined the relation of gender-related physical characteristics (such as a deep voice or broad shoulders) to other aspects of gender. The first study used an open-ended survey to identify physical characteristics and mannerisms that are associated with judgements of masculinity
and femininity in men and women. In a second study, subjects' gender-related physical attributes and mannerisms were coded during a five minute videotaped interaction and related to other aspects of gender such as personality traits, interests and role behaviors, gender identity, and
gender adequacy. The results showed that gender-related physical attributes were consistently associated with other gender characteristics for men but not women. The studies suggest that physical characteristics and mannerisms should be included as an important component in the emerging multifactorial
conception of gender identity.