Skip to main content


Buy Article:

$39.00 plus tax (Refund Policy)

The Chinese version of the Hopelessness Scale (C-HOPE) was administered to 500 Chinese university students, along with other instruments assessing psychiatric symptoms and positive mental health. The C-HOPE was found to have high internal consistency as a scale and factor analysis with a three-factor solution showed that three factors were abstracted from the scale, namely, Hopelessness, Certainty about the Future, and Future Expectation, and these three factors could reliably be reproduced in two random sub-samples. While the C-HOPE was found to correlate significantly with other measures of psychiatric symptoms and positive mental health, it correlated most highly with indices of purpose in life and existential well-being and it was specifically linked to depression rather than to anxiety.
No Reference information available - sign in for access.
No Citation information available - sign in for access.
No Supplementary Data.
No Article Media
No Metrics

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 01 January 1993

More about this publication?
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more