First, the connotations in Japan of crowded situations were discussed. In the second section, some personal characteristics of those who might experience crowding, and of partners who might share a space with the former, were discussed as determinants of individual differences in the
experience of crowding. In the third section, it was suggested that high collectivism, a non-contact culture, and high population density combined with a high crime rate might encourage the experience of crowding in public or semi-public spaces. In the last section, various structural or physical
devices widely observed in Japan, which were assumed to be effective in inhibiting the experience of crowding or reducing crowding stress by maintaining isolation, were discussed.