Group cohesiveness is one of the processes focused upon by the extensive research in the investigation of characteristics of the small group. However, the research literature generally deals with socio-emotional cohesiveness, namely, that based on personal attraction between the individuals.
Nevertheless, there are also studies which question this single-structure (one structural) type approach to cohesiveness. The present article presents a differentiation between two types of cohesiveness according to the factors of its formation and preservation - cohesiveness on a socio-emotional
basis and cohesiveness on an instrumental basis. In addition, a further contribution has been made in this regard through discussion of possible distinct implications associated with each type of cohesiveness in three major areas of small group research: (1) Interpersonal communication;
(2) processes of social influence; (3) group performance.