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This study was designed to assess the relative effects of two types of communicative cues on perceptions of dominance. Stimulus tapes were constructed of two-person conversations in which the amount of vocal participation a speaker contributed and the type of question asked (closed-ended/open-ended)
in the interaction were controlled. The results of a 3 × 2 × 2 (floor time by question type by speaker role) ANOVA revealed that (a) vocal participation is a stronger contributor to perceptions of dominance than either open-ended questions which manage the interaction or closed-ended
questions which lead the respondent in a desired direction, and (b) closed-ended questions are seen as more dominant than open-ended questions. The results are discussed in terms of the monitoring demands the cues place on an observer.