ATTRIBUTION OF PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS IN TWO CULTURES
Data on a set of rating scales and on an ability test were collected from 766 persons in two cultures. The American sample (n = 413) consisted of 186 college (90 male and 96 female) and 227 high school (110 male and 117 female) students. The Pakistani sample (n =353) consisted of 170 college (75 male and 95 female) and 183 high school (96 male and 87 female) students. Every person rated self and 15 significant others on a rating scale and took an ability test involving letter-series items. Results of factor analyses and multivariate analyses of variance demonstrated (a) substantial cross-cultural generality of psychosocial characteristics attributed to self and others, (b) significant (p < 0.001) cultural differences in self-esteem and esteem of others, as well as in perceptual differentiation, (c) significant (p <0.05) differences between males and females in the level of esteem and in perceptual diversity, (d) significant (p < 0.05) differences between high and low ability persons and between college and high school students in measures of esteem and perceptual discrimination, and (e) significant (p < 0.05) interaction effects involving two or more of the four independent variables (culture, education, ability, and sex). Results generally confirmed the main hypotheses postulated here and in some other related studies.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 1978-01-01
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