Four-man groups participated in a model-building task. They were instructed to discuss and then perform the task as a group. Half the groups were given explicit procedural instructions (High Structure), and the other half were not (Low Structure). Of the four males in each group, one
had scored High, one Low, and two Medium on the Machiavellianism Scale. Medium Machs were rated as leaders significantly more than High or Low Machs, especially in the Low Structure condition. Low Structure increased emergent leadership across Machiavellianism level, while High Structure increased
group members' satisfaction.