Discrepancies between real-self and ideal-self performances on a personality inventory, the Pensacola Z-Survey, were compared in two groups of high school seniors who were born and raised in one community (either Dayton, Ohio or The Plains, Ohio) and a group who had moved from an Appalachian
environment to Dayton. The shifted subjects were different from the unshifted ones only in idealizing greater dependency, rather than the expected opposite. Earlier interpretation of reduced real-ideal discrepancy with social change was not supported but the real-ideal discrepancy does provide
a sensitive index of psychological effects of social cultural change.