Characterization of Polymorphic States in Energetic Samples of 1,3,5-Trinitro-1,3,5-Triazine (RDX) Fabricated Using Drop-on-Demand Inkjet Technology
Abstract:The United States Army and the first responder community are evaluating optical detection systems for the trace detection of hazardous energetic materials. Fielded detection systems must be evaluated with the appropriate material concentrations to accurately identify the residue in theater. Trace levels of energetic materials have been observed in mutable polymorphic phases and, therefore, the systems being evaluated must be able to detect and accurately identify variant sample phases observed in spectral data. In this work, we report on the novel application of drop-on-demand technology for the fabrication of standardized trace 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) samples. The drop-on-demand sample fabrication technique is compared both visually and spectrally to the more commonly used drop-and-dry technique. As the drop-on-demand technique allows for the fabrication of trace level hazard materials, concerted efforts focused on characterization of the polymorphic phase changes observed with low concentrations of RDX commonly used in drop-on-demand processing. This information is important when evaluating optical detection technologies using samples prepared with a drop-on-demand inkjet system, as the technology may be “trained” to detect the common bulk α phase of the explosive based on its spectral features but fall short in positively detecting a trace quantity of RDX (β-phase). We report the polymorphic shifts observed between α- and β-phases of this energetic material and discuss the conditions leading to the favoring of one phase over the other.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Science Applications International Corporation, P.O. Box 68, Gunpowder Branch, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010-5424, USA
Publication date: June 1, 2012
More about this publication?
- The Society publishes the internationally recognized, peer reviewed journal, Applied Spectroscopy, which is available both in print and online. Subscriptions are included with membership or can be purchased by institutional or corporate organizations. Abstracts may be viewed free of charge. Previously published as Bulletin (Society for Applied Spectroscopy)
- Editorial Board
- Information for Authors
- Submit a Paper
- Subscribe to this Title
- Membership Information
- Request copyrighted SAS materials
- Spectroscopic Nomenclature
- Focal Point (Open Access)
- ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites