Identification of Inorganic Pigments Used in Porcelain Cards Based on Fusing Raman and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Data

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Abstract:

Raman spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy are often used as complementary techniques that are well suited for the analysis of art objects because both techniques are fast, sensitive, and noninvasive and measurements can take place in situ. In most of these studies, both techniques are used separately, in the sense that the spectra are evaluated independently and single conclusions are obtained, considering both results. This paper presents a data fusion procedure for Raman and XRF data for the characterization of pigments used in porcelain cards. For the classification of the analyzed points of the porcelain cards principal component analysis (PCA) was used. A first attempt was made to develop a new procedure for the identification of the pigments using a database containing the fused Raman–XRF data of 24 reference pigments. The results show that the classification based on the fused Raman–XRF data is significantly better than the classifications based on the Raman data or the XRF data separately.

Keywords: ART CONSERVATION; CULTURAL HERITAGE; DATA FUSION; IDENTIFICATION PROCEDURE; PCA; PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS; RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY; X-RAY FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY; XRF

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1366/11-06368

Affiliations: 1: Ghent University, Research group Raman spectroscopy, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium. Raman@UGent.be 2: Ghent University, Research group Raman spectroscopy, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium, VU University, Department of Applied Spectroscopy, F-NW, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 Amsterdam, The Netherlands 3: Ghent University, Research group X-ray microspectroscopy and imaging, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium 4: VU University, Department of Applied Spectroscopy, F-NW, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 Amsterdam, The Netherlands 5: Ghent University, Research group Raman spectroscopy, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281, S12, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium 6: Ghent University, Department of Archaeology, Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat 35, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium

Publication date: November 1, 2011

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