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Wavelength Selection for Multivariate Calibration Using Tikhonov Regularization

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Prediction of sample properties using spectroscopic data with multivariate calibration is often enhanced by wavelength selection. This paper reports on a built-in wavelength selection method in which the estimated regression vector contains zero to near-zero coefficients for undesirable wavelengths. The method is based on Tikhonov regularization with the model 1-norm (TR1) and is applied to simulated and near-infrared (NIR) spectral data. Models are also formed from wavelength subsets determined by the standard method of stepwise regression (SWR). Harmonious (bias/variance tradeoff) and parsimonious considerations are compared with and without wavelength selection for principal component regression (PCR), ridge regression (RR), partial least squares (PLS), and multiple linear regression (MLR). Results show that TR1 models generally contain large baseline regions of near-zero coefficients, thereby essentially achieving built-in wavelength selection. For example, wavelengths with spectral interferences and/or poor signal-to-noise ratios obtain near zero regression coefficients. Results often improve with TR1 models, compared to full wavelength PCR, RR, and PLS models. The SWR subset results are similar to those for the TR1 models using the NIR data and worse with the simulated spectral situations. In general, wavelength selection improves prediction accuracy at a sacrifice to a potential increase in variance and the parsimony remains nearly equivalent compared to full wavelength models. New insights gained from the reported studies provide useful guidelines on when to use full wavelengths or use wavelength selection methods. Specifically, when a small number of large wavelength effects (good sensitivity and selectivity) exist, subset selection by SWR (with caution) and TR1 do well. With a small to moderate number of large to moderate sized wavelength effects, TR1 is better. Lastly, when a large number of small effects are present, full wavelengths with the methods of PCR, RR, or PLS are best.


Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Department of Chemistry, Idaho State University, Pocatello, Idaho 83209 2: Institute of Chemistry, Chemical Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, PO Box 17, H-1525, Budapest, Hungary

Publication date: January 1, 2007

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