Continuous Glucose Monitoring by Means of Fiber-Based, Mid-Infrared Laser Spectroscopy

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The application of mid-infrared laser spectroscopy to the reagent-free quantification of the concentration of glucose was investigated using cryogenically cooled lead salt lasers or, alternatively, quantum cascade lasers operating at room temperature. The concentration of glucose in aqueous solutions was quantified by means of fiber-based attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy (fiber-optical evanescent field analysis, FEFA) as well as fiber-based transmission spectroscopy. Both methods have the potential to be utilized by small fiber sensors, which can be inserted into the subcutaneous tissue in order to continuously measure the local concentration of glucose. In our in vitro experiments, noise-equivalent concentrations as low as 10 mg/dL were achieved. The mid-term stability of the measurement schemes was investigated by means of Allan variance analysis. Based on the research presented in this manuscript, an all-room-temperature measurement scheme using quantum cascade lasers, miniaturized fiber-optic sensors, and pyroelectric detectors appears well suited for the continuous monitoring of glucose concentrations at physiological levels.


Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: 1: Fraunhofer Institute for Physical Measurement Techniques (IPM), Heidenhofstr. 8, D- 79110 Freiburg, Germany 2: Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Sandhofer Str. 116, D-68305 Mannheim, Germany 3: Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Sandhofer Str. 116, D-68305 Mannheim, Germany; Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, University of Heidelberg, D-69122 Heidelberg, Germany

Publication date: July 1, 2006

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