Analyzing Raman Maps of Pharmaceutical Products by Sample–Sample Two-Dimensional Correlation
Abstract:Sample–sample (SS) two-dimensional (2D) correlation spectroscopy is applied in this study as a spectral selection tool to produce chemical images of real-world pharmaceutical samples consisting of two, three, and four components. The most unique spectra in a Raman mapping spectral matrix are found after analysis of the covariance matrix. (This is obtained by multiplying the original mapping data matrix by itself.) These spectra are identified by analyzing the slices of the covariance matrix at the positions where covariance values are at maxima. Chemical images are subsequently produced in a univariate fashion by visually selecting the wavenumbers in the extracted spectra that are least overlapped. The performance of SS 2D correlation is compared with principal component analysis in terms of highlighting the most prominent spectral differences across the whole data set (which typically comprises several thousand spectra) and determining the total number of species present. In addition, the selection of the unique spectra by SS 2D correlation is compared with the selection obtained by the orthogonal projection approach (OPA). Both comparisons are found to be satisfactory and demonstrate that a quite simple SS 2D correlation routine can be used for producing reliable images of unknown samples. The main benefit of using SS 2D correlation is that it is based on a few data processing commands that can be executed separately and produce results that are closely related to the chemical features of the system.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: May 1, 2005
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