Identification of Bacterial Spores Using Statistical Analysis of Fourier Transform Infrared Photoacoustic Spectroscopy Data

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Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) has been applied for the first time to the identification and speciation of bacterial spores. A total of forty specimens representing five strains of Bacillus spores (Bacillus subtilis ATCC 49760, Bacillus atrophaeus ATCC 49337, Bacillus subtilis 6051, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, and Bacillus globigii Dugway) were analyzed. Spores were deposited, with minimal preparation, into the photoacoustic sample cup and their spectra recorded. Principal component analysis (PCA), classification and regression trees (CART), and Mahalanobis distance calculations were used on this spectral library to develop algorithms for step-wise classification at three levels: (1) bacterial/nonbacterial, (2) membership within the spore library, and (3) bacterial strain. Internal cross-validation studies on library spectra yielded classification success rates of 87% or better at each of these three levels. Analysis of fifteen blind samples, which included five samples of spores already in the spectral library, two samples of closely related Bacillus globigii 01 spores not in the library, and eight samples of nonbacterial materials, yielded 100% accuracy in distinguishing among bacterial/nonbacterial samples, membership in the library, and bacterial strains within the library.
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