Urinary Stone Layer Analysis of Mineral Components by Raman Spectroscopy, IR Spectroscopy, and X-ray Powder Diffraction: A Comparative Study

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Mineral components of a urinary stone forming layers have been analyzed with the use of Raman spectroscopy (RS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The three spectroscopic methods were compared with respect to their capability of yielding reliable analytical qualitative results. The application of RS yielded less crowded spectra with sharper bands in comparison with those obtained by FT-IR. The analysis of the various mineral layers found in a human stone was possible with RS by focusing the laser beam at the desired layer. Overlapping broad bands were produced from the application of FT-IR, which made it difficult to identify components whose bands showed overlapping. Powder XRD could not be used for accurate analysis of the mineral components of the various stone layers since the material contained in the layers of small stones is not sufficient for analytical purposes. Moreover, the necessary stone grinding precludes the possibility of mineral topological analysis.
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