Multivariate Classification of the Infrared Spectra of Cell and Tissue Samples

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Infrared microspectroscopy of biopsied canine lymph cells and tissue was performed to investigate the possibility of using IR spectra coupled with multivariate classification methods to classify the samples as normal, hyperplastic, or neoplastic (malignant). IR spectra were obtained in transmission mode through BaF2 windows and in reflection mode from samples prepared on gold-coated microscope slides. Cytology and histopathology samples were prepared by a variety of methods to identify the optimal methods of sample preparation. Cytospinning procedures that yielded a monolayer of cells on the BaF2 windows produced a limited set of IR transmission spectra. These transmission spectra were converted to absorbance and formed the basis for a classification rule that yielded 100% correct classification in a cross-validated context. Classifications of normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic cell sample spectra were achieved by using both partial least-squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) classification methods. Linear discriminant analysis applied to principal components obtained from the spectral data yielded a small number of misclassifications. PLS weight loading vectors yield valuable qualitative insight into the molecular changes that are responsible for the success of the infrared classification. These successful classification results show promise for assisting pathologists in the diagnosis of cell types and offer future potential for in vivo IR detection of some types of cancer.
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