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A Study of Natural and Synthetic Rubies by PIXE

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Trace element analysis of 160 natural- and synthetic rubies was carried out by using the technique of proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE). It was found that the natural rubies contained more and higher concentrations of impurities than did their synthetic counterparts. Our results suggest that vanadium and iron are good indicators for separating synthetic rubies from the natural ones. The concentration of chromium is also helpful in many cases for source identification.

Keywords: Gemstones; Proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE)

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1366/0003702894203381

Affiliations: 1: Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 0511 2: Department of Chemistry National University of Singapore, Singapore 0511 3: Retty Enterprises, 3 Lengkok Merak, Singapore 1024 4: Elvin Gems Pte. Ltd., 79 Jalan Taman, Singapore 1232

Publication date: February 1, 1989

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