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Coal Combustion Fly Ash Characterization: Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis, Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis, and Scanning Electron Microscopy

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Abstract:

The surface and bulk properties of five samples of fly ash have been examined by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDXA). Samples from a conventional pulverized coal combustor, a conventional stoker-fed combustor, and an experimental fluidized bed combustor (FBC) were examined. ESCA data indicated that all samples contained silicon, aluminum, magnesium, calcium, iron, potassium, carbon, oxygen, and sulfur and all but one contained titanium. Samples from the conventional combustors contained more carbon than samples from the FBC. FBC samples contained large amounts of calcium and magnesium. Valence states of some elements were obtained by a detailed examination of selected ESCA peaks. Sputtering was performed on two samples to obtain a depth profile of the composition. The EDXA data confirmed the presence of silicon, aluminum, magnesium, calcium, iron, potassium, sulfur, and titanium while chlorine was detected in some samples. The EDXA data for individual particles exhibited marked particle to particle compositional variation. SEM studies demonstrated that the morphology of FBC samples was different from that of all of the conventional combustor samples examined.

Keywords: EDXA; ESCA; Fly ash; Heterogeneity; SEM

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1366/0003702804731230

Affiliations: 1: Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, P.O. Box 5890, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87115 and Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87115 2: Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, P.O. Box 5890, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87115 and Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87115; present address: Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611

Publication date: September 1, 1980

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