Effects of Gypsy Moth Defoliation on Softwood and Hardwood Growth and Mortality in New Brunswick, Canada
The first major European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) outbreak occurred in central New Brunswick, Canada, on over 3,000 ha of forestland, from 2001–2003. The outbreak was severe enough to result in considerable landowner concern and a privately funded aerial insecticide spray program to protect trees. Defoliation was unexpectedly severe on several tree species thought to be resistant or immune, as indicated from studies in the northeastern United States. Fifty plots (564 trees) were established and measured for standard mensurational characteristics, defoliation, and annual tree mortality, and after the cessation of defoliation, 44 trees were destructively stem analyzed to determine growth patterns. Balsam fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) with defoliation of more than 75% sustained specific volume increment reduction averaging 55% and 25% mortality after 2 years of severe defoliation. Red oak (Quercus rubra L.) sustained about 40% growth reduction, similar to results of previous studies. However, white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.), with more than 75% defoliation for 2 years, sustained 43–48% growth reduction, higher than in previous studies, and 4–12% mortality. The gypsy moth range in Canada appears to be gradually expanding beyond previous climatic (cold winter temperature) limitations, and these results will help to predict future impacts.
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Each regional journal of applied forestry focuses on research, practice, and techniques targeted to foresters and allied professionals in specific regions of the United States and Canada. The Northern Journal of Applied Forestry covers northeastern, midwestern, and boreal forests in the United States and Canada.
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