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Application costs and efficacy were determined for cut-stump treatments applied to American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) to control root and stump sprouts in central West Virginia. Glyphosate as Glypro (53.8%) was applied to the outer 2 in. of beech stumps from trees >6.0-in. dbh within 1 hour after cutting. In addition to treatment plots, individual beech stumps were treated to determine mortality patterns. The treatments were applied in early September 2001 and evaluated 12 months after treatment. A rating system ranging from 1 to 7 (0 to 100% crown affected) based on visual estimates of symptoms was used to evaluate the efficacy of the treatments. Trees with a rating of 5 (75% crown control or greater) were considered controlled. After 12 months, more than 90% of beech root sprouts ≥1-ft tall to 5.9-in. dbh on treated plots were controlled. Complete control of stump sprouting also was achieved. An average of 93 beech stems was controlled around each treated stump. Mortality around treated stumps declined as the radial distance from stumps increased and stump size decreased. Average application cost (chemical and labor) ranged from $39.43 to 62.34 per acre depending on the basal area and number of stems treated. After two growing seasons, the number of beech root sprouts on more than 90% of the treated regeneration plots remained below levels considered as interfering according to guidelines for Allegheny hardwoods. This study demonstrated that herbicide is readily translocated from the surfaces of freshly cut beech stumps via parent root systems to attached live beech stems. The cut-stump method can be applied in areas where beech is the primary species interfering with the establishment and development of desirable regeneration.
Each regional journal of applied forestry focuses on research, practice, and techniques targeted to foresters and allied professionals in specific regions of the United States and Canada. The Northern Journal of Applied Forestry covers northeastern, midwestern, and boreal forests in the United States and Canada.