Skip to main content

Preharvest Manual Herbicide Treatments for Controlling American Beech in Central West Virginia

Buy Article:

$29.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)


Application costs and efficacy were determined for manual preharvest herbicide treatments applied to control American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) that was interfering with the establishment and development of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) in central West Virginia. The treatments consisted of four levels of basal area reduction using combinations of two application methods: hack-and-squirt injection with Accord (41.5%) and basal spraying with Garlon 4 (61.6% butoxyethyl ester). The treatments were applied in late Aug. 2000 and evaluated 12 months after treatment. A numerical rating system ranging from 1 to 7 (0–100% crown affected), based on a visual estimation of top kill, was used to evaluate the efficacy of each treatment. Trees receiving a rating of 5 (75% crown control) or greater were considered controlled. After 12 months, almost complete control (99%) was achieved with both application methods. Injection of ≥6.0-in. dbh beech stems also controlled 52% and 21.6% of small untreated beech understory stems in the 2-ft tall to 0.9-in. dbh and 1.0- to 5.9-in. dbh classes, respectively. Average application costs (chemical and labor) ranged from $39.28/ac for injection of 159 stems/ac ≥6 in. dbh to $80.32/ac for basal spraying 396 stems/ac in the 1.0- to 5.9-in. dbh class and $230.09/ac for basal spraying 3,743 stems/ac in the 2-ft tall to 0.9-in. dbh class. Basal spraying the numerous small 2-ft tall to 0.9-in. dbh stems dramatically increased treatment costs. Black cherry occupied 30% of total stand basal area and accounted for 91% of total stand value ($6,288.10/ac). Application costs expressed as a percentage of total stand value ranged from <1% for the injection-only treatment up to 6.5% for combination basal spray and injection treatments. The individual stem herbicide application methods described here are applicable to the steep topography and small nonindustrial ownerships found in Appalachia.

Keywords: American beech; Appalachian hardwoods; Herbicides; economics; manual application methods; silviculture

Document Type: Regular Article

Affiliations: 1: Homochitto National Forest USDA Forest Service 1200 Hwy 184 East Meadville MS 39653 2: Northeastern Research Station USDA Forest Service P.O. Box 404 Parsons WV 26287 3: Timberland Consulting HC 78 Box 52 Shanks WV 26761-9614 4: Northeastern Research Station USDA Forest Service 180 Canfield Street Morgantown WV 26505-3101

Publication date: 2004-03-01

More about this publication?
  • Each regional journal of applied forestry focuses on research, practice, and techniques targeted to foresters and allied professionals in specific regions of the United States and Canada. The Northern Journal of Applied Forestry covers northeastern, midwestern, and boreal forests in the United States and Canada.
  • Membership Information
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more