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To restore woodlots at Gettysburg National Military Park (GNMP) to Civil War condition, in which oak was the dominant vegetation, the effects of woodlot, canopy treatment, and fencing treatment on the survival and height of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) direct-seeded seedlings, planted seedlings, and planted saplings were examined. Three 0.20 ha circular canopy treatments (closed canopy, partially open canopy, and completely open canopy) were assigned within each of three woodlots. Each treatment was replicated three times within each woodlot. Within each canopy treatment unit, two paired fenced and unfenced plots were established. At each pair of plots, 40 acorns, eight 2-0 bareroot seedlings, and six 4-0 bareroot saplings were planted. Foraging damage by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and small mammals was monitored during the second and fourth growing seasons after canopy treatment. At the end of the second and fourth growing seasons, survival and height were recorded for each of the three sources of regeneration. Four-year survival of direct-seeded seedlings and planted seedlings was maximized on fenced plots. Planted sapling 4 yr survival and height were greatest in the partially or completely open canopy. To maximize 4 yr height of direct-seeded seedlings and planted seedlings, the completely open canopy, fence treatment combination was recommended. All three sources of northern red oak had potential for regenerating GNMP woodlots. Due to rapid height growth, either direct-seeded seedlings or planted seedlings may be preferred.
15057 East Town Hall Road, Effingham, IL, 62401, 2:
School of Forest Resources, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802,
Publication date: September 1, 2003
More about this publication?
Each regional journal of applied forestry focuses on research, practice, and techniques targeted to foresters and allied professionals in specific regions of the United States and Canada. The Northern Journal of Applied Forestry covers northeastern, midwestern, and boreal forests in the United States and Canada.