Sample Sizes Required To Estimate Defoliation of Spruce and Balsam Fir Caused by Spruce Budworm Accurately
Data from the assessment of current defoliation levels on 172,000 individual shoots from 6890 midcrown branches sampled from balsam fir and spruce stands were used to define sampling protocols for assessing defoliation caused by spruce budworm. The method was based on sampling one midcrown branch from each of x host trees per stand, and assessing defoliation of y individual shoots per branch. Both the number of shoots per branch and the number of branches required per stand varied with host species (balsam fir, white spruce, or red-black spruce) and with average defoliation level. Sample sizes required to estimate mean defoliation with 90% confidence that the confidence interval is ±10% ranged from 7 to 24 branches per stand and from 17 to 58 shoots per branch, with the largest samples required at moderate (31-70%) defoliation levels. Estimated costs of shoot and branch sampling and processing ranged from $40-110/stand, based on a 90% confidence level salary rate of $12(Can.)/hr, and excluding travel costs. Results can be applied using a preliminary assessment to determine the general defoliation level, which along with species, determines the required sample size. North. J. Appl. For. 15(3):135-140.
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Document Type: Journal Article
Affiliations: Canadian Forest Service, Atlantic Forestry Centre, P.O. Box 4000, Fredericton, N.B. E3B 5P7, Canada
Publication date: 01 September 1998