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Container Volume Affects Survival and Growth of White Spruce, Black Spruce, and Jack Pine Seedlings: A Literature Review

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This paper is the first general review of the affects of container volume on the survival and growth of containerized white spruce, black spruce, and jack pine seedlings. The review shows that the literature on this topic is fragmentary and inconsistent. Seedling growth in the greenhouse production phase has been more completely quantified than subsequent establishment and growth after out-planting in the field. In the greenhouse production phase, seedling growth increased from 72 to 360% when the container volume was tripled in size. After outplanting in the field, seedling growth trends were more variable. Seedling height growth increased from 34 to 84% when container volume was tripled in size. Seedling survival was more difficult to assess because of limited data. Only white spruce showed a 10% increase in survival with an increase in container volume. The indications from this literature review suggest that nursery managers and practicing foresters should become more aware of the limitations imposed on seedling survival and growth due to container volume. To maintain optional survival and growth for white spruce, black spruce and jack pine, the container volume should range from 90 to 120 cm³. North. J. Appl. For. 5:185-189, Sept. 1988.
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Document Type: Journal Article

Affiliations: School of Forestry, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, P7B 5E1

Publication date: 1988-09-01

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  • Each regional journal of applied forestry focuses on research, practice, and techniques targeted to foresters and allied professionals in specific regions of the United States and Canada. The Northern Journal of Applied Forestry covers northeastern, midwestern, and boreal forests in the United States and Canada.
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