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Incidence and Performance of Multiple-Leadered Seedlings of Black and White Spruce in Canadian Nurseries

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The incidence of multiple leaders in spruce seedlings was assessed in Ontario nurseries from 1980 to 1984 and in provincial nurseries across Canada in 1982. The occurrence of multiple-leadered seedlings averaged 30 to 40% and at times exceeded 50%. In northern Ontario nurseries, frosts and winter injury appeared responsible. Terminal bud injury resulted in 50 to 90% multiple leadering. In southern Ontario the formation of abnormal buds was the principle cause of multiple-leadered seedlings. The highest incidence of abnormal bud formation was most frequently found in 2 + 0 white spruce. Although 20 to 30% shorter, multiple-leadered seedlings of black and white spruce had the same total shoot weight and root collar diameter as normal seedlings. North. J. Appl. For. 5:99-103, June 1988.
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Document Type: Journal Article

Affiliations: Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, N1G 2W1

Publication date: 1988-06-01

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  • Each regional journal of applied forestry focuses on research, practice, and techniques targeted to foresters and allied professionals in specific regions of the United States and Canada. The Northern Journal of Applied Forestry covers northeastern, midwestern, and boreal forests in the United States and Canada.
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