Skip to main content

Alternatives to Evacuation—Protecting Public Safety during Wildland Fire

Buy Article:

$29.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)


Remaining inside fire-safe structures or at designated safety zones to actively defend against wildland fire events is an underrepresented area of scholarship. Although research on chemical spills and tornadoes has long advocated a similar practice of shelter-in-place during certain types of emergency situations, its applicability to the field of wildland fire management appears only infrequently in conferences and necessitates a more active view of participants in ensuring their safety. This article suggests that the Australian model of fire response, “prepare, stay and defend, or leave early,” may emerge as a viable alternative to evacuation in some, but not all, wildland–urban interface (WUI) fire situations. Several communities in the West have begun to explore opportunities for alternatives to evacuation during wildland fire. Because of the lack of US experience with these types of responses during fire events we attempt to draw lessons from disaster and risk communication literature related to other types of hazards. An overview of associated fire literature will provide background and situate these concerns in a larger social context. We maintain that this literature provides insight into the considerations, precautions, and initial steps needed for testing the applicability of the Australian model of “prepare, stay and defend, or leave early” during wildland fire events threatening WUI populations.

Keywords: evacuation; wildfire

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: March 1, 2008

More about this publication?
  • The Journal of Forestry is the most widely circulated scholarly forestry journal in the world. In print since 1902, the Journal has received several national awards for excellence. The mission of the Journal of Forestry is to advance the profession of forestry by keeping forest management professionals informed about significant developments and ideas in the many facets of forestry: economics, education and communication, entomology and pathology, fire, forest ecology, geospatial technologies, history, international forestry, measurements, policy, recreation, silviculture, social sciences, soils and hydrology, urban and community forestry, utilization and engineering, and wildlife management. The Journal is published bimonthly: January, March, May, July, September, and November.

    2015 Impact Factor: 1.476
    Ranking: 22 of 66 in forestry

    Also published by SAF:
    Forest Science
    Other SAF Publications
  • Submit a Paper
  • Membership Information
  • Author Guidelines
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Partial Open Access Content
Partial Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more