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Grey-Headed Juncos Important in First Season Mortality of Engelmann Spruce

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Gray-headed juncos clip attached seed-coats from newly germinated Engelmann spruce seedlings. In a five-year study, these birds clipped 20 percent of the seedlings and were the second leading cause of first-season mortality in clearcut openings.
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Document Type: Journal Article

Affiliations: Research Technician, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, U.S. Dept. Agriculture, Forest Service, Fort Collins, Colo., in cooperation with Colorado State University

Publication date: 01 December 1973

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