Grey-Headed Juncos Important in First Season Mortality of Engelmann Spruce
Authors: Noble, Daniel L.; Shepperd, Wayne D.
Source: Journal of Forestry, Volume 71, Number 12, 1 December 1973 , pp. 763-765(3)
Publisher: Society of American Foresters
Abstract:Gray-headed juncos clip attached seed-coats from newly germinated Engelmann spruce seedlings. In a five-year study, these birds clipped 20 percent of the seedlings and were the second leading cause of first-season mortality in clearcut openings.
Document Type: Journal Article
Affiliations: Research Technician, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, U.S. Dept. Agriculture, Forest Service, Fort Collins, Colo., in cooperation with Colorado State University
Publication date: 1 December 1973
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