Widespread dieback, particularly of sugar maple and yellow birch, has been observed for more than a decade in the Lake States. All northern hardwoods are affected to varying degrees; most damage occurs in the larger and older trees in the stand; dieback is cyclic to some extent; and practically no mortality or growth loss occurs. Several causes were identified, with poor internal soil drainage and stand disturbance the major causes; porcupine and sapsucker girdling, late frosts, and pathogenic organisms were involved to a lesser extent.
Document Type: Journal Article
Northern Hardwoods Laboratory, North Central Forest Expt. Sta., Forest Service, U.S. Dept. of Agric., Marquette, Mich.
Publication date: December 1, 1967
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