The Effects of Deer on Conifer Reproduction in Northwestern Montana
A winter deer range in Montana was studied to determine the extent of deer browsing on conifers. The winter range lies in a zone of tension between ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir, the pine being greatly superior in economic value but weaker in competitive ability. Although both species are browsed heavily the deer show a marked preference for the pine. Remedial measures suggested are:(1) Improve the competitive status of the pine by silvicultural practices such as seed-bed preparation; (2) improve deer range conditions by adjusting deer numbers to allow recovery of broadleaf browse species; (3) plan timber cutting practices to benefit deer range whereever possible.
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Document Type: Journal Article
Affiliations: Biologist, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, in cooperation with the Northern Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Missoula, Mont.
Publication date: 1949-11-01
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