Skip to main content

Partial Least Squares for Discriminating Variance Components in Global Navigation Satellite Systems Accuracy Obtained Under Scots Pine Canopies

Buy Article:

$29.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Abstract:

This article applies inductive reasoning for explaining how the presence of a forest cover affects the performance of diverse global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers. We computed GNSS accuracy and precision obtained in a Scots pine forest situated in the Guadarrama mountain range, Spain. The quality of the GNSS occupations obtained was related to forest parameters and indices describing stand density at the receiver's position. We also characterized the terrain and the canopy gap surrounding the receiver to search for more sources of variability. We computed multiple regression models by means of both ordinary and partial least squares. Results with both techniques showed that most variables were clearly determining the quality of GNSS positioning, although we had to discard the practicality of using terrain slope, stem density, or characterizing only the trees that surround the receiver. Moreover, partial least-squares analysis was successfully used to discriminate two different components that were causing opposite effects on the vertical accuracy. We regarded the second component as being caused by the separate effect of tree needles, because the higher the tree canopy was, the lower the error. Therefore, tree height may describe opposed effects: while wood stock increases, the crown bulk distances itself from the GNSS receiver. We therefore suggest that it is mandatory to model the interactive effects of both the number of trees and their size and height. Hence, we propose relative spacing index, wood volume, and leaf area index as the variables with the best potential for predicting GNSS accuracy.

Keywords: canopy and tree crown modeling; global positioning systems (GPS)/GLONASS accuracy and precision; leaf area index; multiple regression; stand density indices

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.5849/forsci.10-025

Publication date: 2012-04-02

More about this publication?
  • Forest Science is a peer-reviewed journal publishing fundamental and applied research that explores all aspects of natural and social sciences as they apply to the function and management of the forested ecosystems of the world. Topics include silviculture, forest management, biometrics, economics, entomology & pathology, fire & fuels management, forest ecology, genetics & tree improvement, geospatial technologies, harvesting & utilization, landscape ecology, operations research, forest policy, physiology, recreation, social sciences, soils & hydrology, and wildlife management.
    Forest Science is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December.

    2015 Impact Factor: 1.702
    Ranking: 16 of 66 in forestry

    Also published by SAF:
    Journal of Forestry
    Other SAF Publications
  • Submit a Paper
  • Membership Information
  • Author Guidelines
  • Podcasts
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free ContentFree content
  • Partial Free ContentPartial Free content
  • New ContentNew content
  • Open Access ContentOpen access content
  • Partial Open Access ContentPartial Open access content
  • Subscribed ContentSubscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed ContentPartial Subscribed content
  • Free Trial ContentFree trial content
Cookie Policy
X
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more