Skip to main content

Interactions of Elevation, Aspect, and Slope in Models of Forest Species Composition and Productivity

Buy Article:

$29.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)


We present a linear model for the interacting effects of elevation, aspect, and slope for use in predicting forest productivity or species composition. The model formulation we propose integrates interactions of these three factors in a mathematical expression representing their combined effect in terms of a cosine function of aspect with a phase shift and amplitude that change with slope and elevation. This model allows the data to determine how the aspect effect changes with elevation and slope. Earlier articles concerning the interactions of slope, aspect, and elevation have been incomplete by either treating elevation as fixed or ignoring the possibility that aspect effect must also involve slope. The proposed set of variables is illustrated in four applications: (1) a hypothetical data set for probability of stocking by “species” having different adaptations to elevation, (2) in a discriminant function for forest/nonforest classification of data from Utah, (3) estimating mean annual increment of Utah forests, and (4) estimating the height asymptote in a mixed-model differential equation predicting Douglas-fir height growth.

Keywords: Douglas-fir; Pseudotsuga menziesii; discriminant function

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: August 1, 2007

More about this publication?
  • Forest Science is a peer-reviewed journal publishing fundamental and applied research that explores all aspects of natural and social sciences as they apply to the function and management of the forested ecosystems of the world. Topics include silviculture, forest management, biometrics, economics, entomology & pathology, fire & fuels management, forest ecology, genetics & tree improvement, geospatial technologies, harvesting & utilization, landscape ecology, operations research, forest policy, physiology, recreation, social sciences, soils & hydrology, and wildlife management.
    Forest Science is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December.

    2015 Impact Factor: 1.702
    Ranking: 16 of 66 in forestry

    Also published by SAF:
    Journal of Forestry
    Other SAF Publications
  • Submit a Paper
  • Membership Information
  • Author Guidelines
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Partial Open Access Content
Partial Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more