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Improved Estimation for Multiple Means with Heterogeneous Variances

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Two new estimators are presented for use in situations where simultaneous estimation of more than two sample means is required and alternative, possibly biased information is available. The new estimators are modifications to an older estimator by Green and Strawderman. The latter estimator assumed homogeneous variances, whereas the new ones are designed for the more usual case of heterogeneous variances among the sample means. In simulation experiments, the new estimators yielded superior performance to that of the ordinary sample mean vector (X). Surprisingly, the estimator designed to dominate X under precision-weighted loss was apparently the best estimator, even under nonprecision-weighted loss. Use of the new estimators should allow foresters to achieve considerable savings in estimation precision. FOR. SCI. 51(1):1–6.

Keywords: Empirical Bayes; environmental management; forest; forest inventory; forest management; forest resources; forestry; forestry research; forestry science; natural resource management; natural resources

Document Type: Regular Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Natural Resources, Cook College Rutgers University New Brunswick NJ 08901-8551, Email: 2: Department of Statistics Rutgers University Piscataway NJ 08854-8019, Email: 3: Department of Forestry Virginia Tech Blacksburg VA 24061, Email: 4: Southern Research Station USDA-Forest Service Research Triangle Park NC 27709, Email:

Publication date: 2005-02-01

More about this publication?
  • Forest Science is a peer-reviewed journal publishing fundamental and applied research that explores all aspects of natural and social sciences as they apply to the function and management of the forested ecosystems of the world. Topics include silviculture, forest management, biometrics, economics, entomology & pathology, fire & fuels management, forest ecology, genetics & tree improvement, geospatial technologies, harvesting & utilization, landscape ecology, operations research, forest policy, physiology, recreation, social sciences, soils & hydrology, and wildlife management.
    Forest Science is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December.

    2015 Impact Factor: 1.702
    Ranking: 16 of 66 in forestry

    Also published by SAF:
    Journal of Forestry
    Other SAF Publications
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