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Surrogate Pheromone Plumes in Three Forest Trunk Spaces: Composite Statistics and Case Studies

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An atmospheric tracer gas was used as a pheromone surrogate to study near-field canopy dispersion within the trunk space. The objective is to improve guidance for forest managers deploying bark beetle antiaggregation pheromone sources to protect high-value forest stands. Data are shown from field studies in three forest canopies (oak-hickory, Quercus-Carya; lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.; and ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and include over 13,000 chemical tracer samples compiled into half-hour dispersion fields around a point source. Maximum normalized concentrations (χ/Q) at each arc distance for each sampling period were of similar order at 5 m from the tracer source in the three canopies, although the differences in maximum χ/Q between canopies increased with distance from the source. Plume dilution was highest in this study in the more open ponderosa pine canopy. A high-frequency tracer gas analyzer was also deployed to ascertain the structure of the gas plumes at 1 Hz. The high-frequency tracer data showed that the 30-minute average mean plumes are composites of narrow filamentous plumes. The near-field plumes in each canopy were strongly affected by changes in atmospheric stability, as wander range and meander frequency increased after the morning transition to an unstable boundary layer. FOR. SCI. 50(5):610–625.

Keywords: In-canopy dispersion; bark beetle; dispersion fields; environmental management; forest; forest management; forest resources; forestry; forestry research; forestry science; natural resource management; natural resources

Document Type: Regular Article

Affiliations: 1: Program Manager USDA Forest Service, FHTET 180 Canfield St. Morgantown WV 26505 Phone: (304) 285-1574;, Fax: (304) 285-1564, Email: 2: Professor Department of Environmental Engineering Montana Technical University 1300 West Park Butte MT 59701 Phone: (406) 496-4339, Email: 3: Research Associate Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Washington State University Pullman WA 99164-3140 Phone: (509) 335-5702 4: Professor Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Washington State University Pullman WA 99164-3140 Phone: (509) 335-5702, Email: 5: Graduate Assistant Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Washington State University Pullman WA 99164-3140 Phone: (509) 335-5702 6: Research Entomologist USDA Forest Service 3301 “C” St., Suite 202 Anchorage AK 99503-3956 Phone: (907) 743-9453, Email: 7: Emeritus Researcher USDA Forest Service 1107 Kennedy Pl. #8 Davis CA 95616 Phone: (530) 758-5078, Email:

Publication date: October 1, 2004

More about this publication?
  • Forest Science is a peer-reviewed journal publishing fundamental and applied research that explores all aspects of natural and social sciences as they apply to the function and management of the forested ecosystems of the world. Topics include silviculture, forest management, biometrics, economics, entomology & pathology, fire & fuels management, forest ecology, genetics & tree improvement, geospatial technologies, harvesting & utilization, landscape ecology, operations research, forest policy, physiology, recreation, social sciences, soils & hydrology, and wildlife management.
    Forest Science is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December.

    2015 Impact Factor: 1.702
    Ranking: 16 of 66 in forestry

    Also published by SAF:
    Journal of Forestry
    Other SAF Publications
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