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The Influence of Forest and Stand Conditions on Spruce Budworm Defoliation in New Brunswick, Canada

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The species composition of stands and surrounding forest have been suggested as important factors influencing the amount of spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana [Clem.]) defoliation and, consequently, budworm-induced growth loss and mortality. We measured spruce budworm defoliation from 1989–1993 in 40 spruce (Picea sp.) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea [L.] Mill.) stands in north-central New Brunswick, Canada, and evaluated the influence of surrounding forest type (softwood, mixedwood), species group (balsam fir, spruce), and site quality (wet/nutrient poor, moist/nutrient rich) on defoliation. Surrounding forest type had a significant effect on the amount of defoliation in white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) stands; stands in softwood forests sustained 11% more (P = 0.0485) defoliation than those in mixedwood. There was evidence that hardwood species have to be within, rather than surrounding, a spruce-fir stand to significantly influence defoliation. Site quality had a significant effect (P = 0.0039) on balsam fir defoliation, with stands on moist/rich sites sustaining 19% more defoliation than those on wet/poor sites. In softwood forest, white spruce stands sustained an average of 16% more defoliation than red-black spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.-Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.) stands. FOR. SCI. 49(5):657–667.

Keywords: Abies balsamea; Choristoneura fumiferana; Picea sp.; balsam fir; environmental management; forest; forest management; forest resources; forestry; forestry research; forestry science; mixedwood; natural resource management; natural resources; site quality; softwood; spruce

Document Type: Miscellaneous

Affiliations: 1: Forestry Officer Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Atlantic Forestry Centre, P.O. Box 4000 Fredericton, N.B., Canada, E3B 5P7, Phone: 506-451-6096; Fax: 506-452-3525 2: Dean Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Management, University of New Brunswick, P.O. Box 44555 Fredericton, N.B., Canada, E3B 5A3,

Publication date: October 1, 2003

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