Skip to main content

Discussion Paper: Establishing Cause-Effect Relationships using Forest Survey Data

Buy Article:

$29.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)


The issue of whether Forest Survey data can be used to establish cause-effect relationships is addressed. We discuss analogous situations in other fields of science, where survey data has been useful in establishing cause-effect, as well as some of the statistical theory developed expressly to deal with cause-effect. We conclude that cause-effect may be established, if both the potential cause and effect variables are measured in the Survey provided the variables are measured accurately, estimated properly, and are based on a large enough sample. Otherwise, Forest Survey data can be used, however, to establish growth trends for large areas, suggest and identify potential cause-effect hypotheses, and identify supplemental data sets to be collected to bolster or reject potential hypotheses.

Keywords: Cause-effect criteria; analogies with other fields; designed experiment; growth; models; mortality; observational studies

Document Type: Discussion

Affiliations: Research Forester, Institute for Quantitative Studies, USDA Forest Service, Southern Forest Experiment Station, New Orleans, LA

Publication date: December 1, 1991

More about this publication?
  • Membership Information
  • ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more