Skip to main content

Predicting Red Pine Shoot Growth Using Growing Degree Days

Buy Article:

$29.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)


A modified Weibull function accurately described the seasonal leading shoot growth of Pinus resinosa Ait. as a function of growing degree day (GDD) sums for five seasons at one station in Minnesota. 41.4°F was a significantly better threshold temperature than the commonly cited 40°F from which to calculate GDD. When tested on data from six other stations, predictive ability was variable, ostensibly because of microclimatic differences between the reference weather stations and the red pine sites. With the exception of one unusual case, variability was greatly reduced by empirically assigning a daily mean temperature bias of no more than ± 1.5°F to the reference stations. As is, the GDD model seems capable of providing sufficiently reliable estimates of shoot growth maturity to identify relatively warm, moderate, and cool growing regions to improve the timing of a variety of silvicultural applications related to plant maturity. With calibration of reference stations, the model may be sufficiently sensitive to aid analysis of thermal variability of forested microclimates, to estimate the effects of water stress, or other activities requiring more precise estimates. Forest Sci. 31:913-925.

Keywords: Pinus resinosa; Weibull function; heat sums; modeling

Document Type: Journal Article

Affiliations: Principal Silviculturist, USDA Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Grand Rapids, Minnesota 55744

Publication date: December 1, 1985

More about this publication?
  • Forest Science is a peer-reviewed journal publishing fundamental and applied research that explores all aspects of natural and social sciences as they apply to the function and management of the forested ecosystems of the world. Topics include silviculture, forest management, biometrics, economics, entomology & pathology, fire & fuels management, forest ecology, genetics & tree improvement, geospatial technologies, harvesting & utilization, landscape ecology, operations research, forest policy, physiology, recreation, social sciences, soils & hydrology, and wildlife management.
    Forest Science is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December.

    2015 Impact Factor: 1.702
    Ranking: 16 of 66 in forestry

    Also published by SAF:
    Journal of Forestry
    Other SAF Publications
  • Submit a Paper
  • Membership Information
  • Author Guidelines
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more