Survival, growth, and flower production of loblolly pine scions were influenced by a variety of inter- and intra-specific rootstocks. Eight hard pine species, including some half- and full-sib families were used as rootstock. Japanese red pine rootstock enhanced survival and flower production and reduced growth, and it appeared very promising for orchard use during the first few years following grafting. However, flower production in later years was only average. The use of Virginia pine rootstock in production orchards appeared promising, as both male and female flowering were enhanced. The intraspecific variation among full- and half-sib families of loblolly rootstocks was nearly as large as interspecific variation. Forest Sci. 29:117-124.