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Role of Apophysis and Outer Scale Tissue in Pine Cone Opening

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Removing the apophysis and outer part of the cone scale of seven species of southern pines reduced the time for the cone scales to begin opening, to complete opening, and shed seed. The amount of oleoresin and the resin acid: turpentine ratios were greater in the apophysis + outer part of the cone scales than in the inner part of cone scales + cone axis of most samples. The increased oleoresin content in the outer part of the scales may contribute to keeping cones closed before they dehydrate and open in the autumn, and contribute to case hardening from improper harvesting and drying. Soaking cones in acetone for 4 hours to dissolve resin in the apophysis and outer part of the scales only slightly hastened cone opening. Acetone treatment reduced seed germination below control seeds and seeds from peeled cones. The major monoterpenes in cone scales were α and  pinene. Forest Sci. 27:828-836.

Keywords: Serotinous cones; case hardening; monoterpenes; oleoresin; resin acids; turpentine

Document Type: Journal Article

Affiliations: Professor (Biochemist) Fruit Crops Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611

Publication date: December 1, 1981

More about this publication?
  • Forest Science is a peer-reviewed journal publishing fundamental and applied research that explores all aspects of natural and social sciences as they apply to the function and management of the forested ecosystems of the world. Topics include silviculture, forest management, biometrics, economics, entomology & pathology, fire & fuels management, forest ecology, genetics & tree improvement, geospatial technologies, harvesting & utilization, landscape ecology, operations research, forest policy, physiology, recreation, social sciences, soils & hydrology, and wildlife management.
    Forest Science is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December.

    2015 Impact Factor: 1.702
    Ranking: 16 of 66 in forestry

    Also published by SAF:
    Journal of Forestry
    Other SAF Publications
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