Measuring Forest Soil Bulk Density using Irregular Hole, Paraffin Clod, and Air Permeability

$29.50 plus tax (Refund Policy)

Buy Article:


Soil compaction has been shown to be a problem in forests throughout the United States. Bulk density and air permeability measurements are used as ways of assessing forest soil density and degree of compaction. Three tests--bulk density by the irregular-hole and paraffin-clod methods and air permeability--were compared on 14 soils from three national forests in California. Bulk density was determined by the paraffin-clod method and an irregular-hole method using a levelpoint sampling device. Air permeameter readings were also taken on transects through undisturbed and disturbed sites. The paraffin-clod and irregular-hole bulk density methods were significantly correlated (r = 0.958). Standard deviations of the means for the two methods were not significantly different. Irregular-hole density measurement is rapid, requires little equipment, is equal in precision to the clod method, and accurately measures density of soils with large interaggregate pore space. Air permeability was not correlated with bulk density, but it did show significant differences between disturbed and undisturbed soils. Forest Sci. 27:316-322.

Keywords: Soil compaction; soil management

Document Type: Journal Article

Affiliations: Associate Professor of Soil Science, Department of Land, Air and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616

Publication date: June 1, 1981

More about this publication?
  • Membership Information
  • ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
Related content



Share Content

Access Key

Free Content
Free content
New Content
New content
Open Access Content
Open access content
Subscribed Content
Subscribed content
Free Trial Content
Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
ingentaconnect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more