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Timber Quality of Northern Hardwood Regrowth in the Lake States

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Ninety northern hardwood Forest Survey plots were studied in Wisconsin and Upper Michigan. Exteriors of more than 2,000 trees 1.0 to 15.0 in. (2.5 to 38 cm) dbh were examined for 35 defects of 6 types; interiors of more than 400 dissected stems were also examined. Growing stock quality of trees ≥ 4.0 in. (10.2 cm) dbh was rated according to a 4-class system based mainly on number of major visible defects. In all species the majority of trees fell in class 4, very poor quality. Impact of different defects on quality was examined by comparing observed tree classes with those that would have existed if each defect type were absent. Quality gain in sugar maple, yellow birch, and red maple was greatest when branchiness-forkedness-holes were omitted. Branchiness was the most prevalent defect; in sugar maple percentage of trees affected increased with dbh up to the 10-in. (25.4-cm) dbh class. Harvest and vertebrate scars, disease, and direct insect damage had negligible impacts. Evidence was found in sugar maple stem interiors that branchiness and forkedness usually developed where terminals were destroyed. Preserved signs of the bud miners Proteoteras moffatiana and Obrussa ochrefasciella pointed to terminal-feeding insects as a major indirect cause of branchiness-forkedness-holes. Some locally destructive agents proved unimportant on a regional scale. Forest Sci 24:247-259.
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Keywords: Defect; damage; disease; insect; vertebrate

Document Type: Journal Article

Affiliations: Timber Management Specialist, Huron-Manistee National Forest, Cadillac, MI 49601

Publication date: 1978-06-01

More about this publication?
  • Forest Science is a peer-reviewed journal publishing fundamental and applied research that explores all aspects of natural and social sciences as they apply to the function and management of the forested ecosystems of the world. Topics include silviculture, forest management, biometrics, economics, entomology & pathology, fire & fuels management, forest ecology, genetics & tree improvement, geospatial technologies, harvesting & utilization, landscape ecology, operations research, forest policy, physiology, recreation, social sciences, soils & hydrology, and wildlife management.
    Forest Science is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December.

    2016 Impact Factor: 1.782 (Rank 17/64 in forestry)

    Average time from submission to first decision: 62.5 days*
    June 1, 2016 to Feb. 28, 2017

    Also published by SAF:
    Journal of Forestry
    Other SAF Publications
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