Environmental Factors Affecting Natural Regeneration Engelmann Spruce in the Central Rocky Mountains
Abstract:Natural regeneration success of Engelmann spruce in clearcut openings, with adequate seed, is controlled by weather and aspect and modified by seedbed conditions. Small clearcut openings of 1-2 hectares can be successfully regenerated on north exposures with mineral soil seedbeds and shade. However, successful natural regeneration in openings on south aspects is not possible, and shade is absolutely essential for any survival. Drought was the most serious cause of mortality, but significant losses also resulted from heat girdle, frost heaving, and clipping by birds. FOREST SCI. 23:420-429.
Document Type: Journal Article
Affiliations: Chief Silviculturist, USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, with central headquarters maintained at Fort Collins in cooperation with Colorado State University, 80521.
Publication date: 1977-12-01
- Forest Science is a peer-reviewed journal publishing fundamental and applied research that explores all aspects of natural and social sciences as they apply to the function and management of the forested ecosystems of the world. Topics include silviculture, forest management, biometrics, economics, entomology & pathology, fire & fuels management, forest ecology, genetics & tree improvement, geospatial technologies, harvesting & utilization, landscape ecology, operations research, forest policy, physiology, recreation, social sciences, soils & hydrology, and wildlife management.
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