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External and Internal Changes Associated with Basal-Crook Formation in Pitch and Shortleaf Pines

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Successive sketches show changes in basal form of 10 Pinus rigida Mill. and 22 P. echinata Mill. seedlings through their first 6 years, or until the seedling died. Only two of the 21 seedlings surviving 6 years (one of each species) did not form a typical basal crook. Many seedlings formed incipient crooks during the first summer; others a year or more later. Shortleaf pines usually formed shorter crooks and in less time than pitch pines. Open-grown seedlings formed crooks in less time than shade-grown ones. Stem form continues to change for a period of 2 to 10 years. Changes in stem form can be explained on the basis of (1) weak stems, (2) usually upright direction of apical growth, and (3) formation of compression wood and eccentric growth rings. These wood features were clearly evident in stem sections. Sections also showed heterogeneous alignment of the wood fibers, but revealed no ruptures in cel walls or between growth rings.
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Document Type: Journal Article

Affiliations: Dean, School of Forestry, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.

Publication date: 1966-09-01

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    Forest Science is a peer-reviewed journal publishing fundamental and applied research that explores all aspects of natural and social sciences as they apply to the function and management of the forested ecosystems of the world. Topics include silviculture, forest management, biometrics, economics, entomology & pathology, fire & fuels management, forest ecology, genetics & tree improvement, geospatial technologies, harvesting & utilization, landscape ecology, operations research, forest policy, physiology, recreation, social sciences, soils & hydrology, and wildlife management.
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