Notes: Erection of a Leaning Eastern Hemlock Tree

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A Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. tree, when about 38 years old, with a dbh of about 5 cm, somehow became severely inclined in its entirety and for the next 72 years (until felled) formed compression wood continuously. The resulting upward deflection during this period bent the lower bole into an arc with a radius as small as 120 cm. The righting strain (up to 1.7 percent) was sufficient in magnitude eventually to cause mechanical failure (tearing) in the stem extant at the time of inclination. Apparently this is the first description of such an occurrence.

Document Type: News

Affiliations: Associate Professor, Dept. of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst and Privatdozent, Inst. of Forest Utilization, Univ. of Göttingen

Publication date: September 1, 1965

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