Pelecitus bartneri sp. nov.(Nematoda: Filarioidea) is described from the subcutaneous tissues of the leg of a Golden-shouldered Parrot, Psephotus chrysopterygius Gould, 1858 (Psittaciformes) from an aviary in Brisbane, Queensland. It represents the first species of Pelecitus described from an endemic bird in Australia, although P. fulicaeatrae Diesing,1861, previously known from the Nearctic, Palaearctic and Ethiopian regions, has been recorded from the Eurasian coot, Fulica atra, Linnaeus, 1758. The new species is distinguished from P. fulicaeatrae and P. galli by the presence of granular or hyaline inclusions in the caudal alae of males. It is further distinguished from these species and other species of Pelecitus in avian hosts by the combination of morphometrics of males and females, the presence of only four or five pedunculated pre- and post-cloacal papillae in each caudal ala and the absence of any semi-pedunculate or sessile papillae in the male. It is clearly distinguished from the only species known from Australian marsupial hosts, P. roemeri (Linstow, 1905) of kangaroos and wallabies, by the much smaller size of males and females, the small number of cloacal papillae, the presence of granular inclusions in the caudal alae of males, and the much shorter length of the left spicule.
As of July 31, 2015, Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia will no longer be hosted on ingentaconnect. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia now available from Taylor and Francis (http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/trss20/current#.VE7HuucfmHk)