Articulation and transfer: a symbiotic relationship with lifelong learning
The purpose of this paper is to identify and discussthe inter-relationships between the phenomenon called articulation of curricula and transfer of credits and lifelong learning. Examples feature discussions contained in the recently published APEC-HURDIT book, Lifelong Learning: Policies, Practices and Programs. As described by a number of authors in that book, three futures are predictable for short-cycle higher education systems: institutions essentially non-universities now in planning or developing stages worldwide are likely to modify courses and strengthen distance learning and prior learning delivery techniques for growing numbers of adult re-entry students; industry will become increasingly involved in the delivery of postsecondary education; and technology will expedite non-traditional and non-sponsored education. (Kintzer 1997: 69). Responses to major questions and final comments deal primarily with the three futures in the order mentioned. Illustrative material and interpretations related to experiences in the United States on short-cycle (community) colleges are also interspersed throughout the text. The three predictable futures discussed with particular reference to Pacific Rim countries may also be transferrable in policy planning and action to other nations where a symbiotic relationship between articulation and transfer, and lifelong learning is emerging. Other investigations are therefore strongly recommended. For example, continuing studies of relationships between Universities and the developing Colleges of Further Education in the UK would be very appropriate. In addition, major questions under discussion throughout Europe are: Should the German fachhochschulen- the postsecondary technical institutions so abundant in the former West Germany- become a pattern for other countries in Central and Eastern Europe? How should such short-cycle institutions be related to national universities in credit transfer and lifelong learning opportunities? Similar questions are being asked in Kenya where the well-established 'Harambee' technical institutes are gaining momentum. Testing and evaluation of the three futures discussed in this article should be continuous processes worldwide.