Instructional metacognitive knowledge: a qualitative study on conceptions of freshmen about instruction
Many studies have pointed to the limited direct effectiveness of instructional interventions and one explanation of this has drawn attention to the importance of 'instructional metacognitive knowledge'. In this exploratory study, instructional metacognitive knowledge of university freshmen is addressed by means of a survey covering: (a) instruction in general, (b) instruction in two different environments, and (c) specific delivery systems and concrete instructional interventions. While some differences appeared in the answers on different sets of questions, also large similarities were found. The results show students' knowledge about instruction to be mainly affected by their instructional experiences. The students' view is 'reactive' and places instructional agents at the core of the instructional process. The findings provide additional support for the importance of correspondence between learners' and teachers' views on instructional interventions if forms of support for students' learning are to be effective.